It “All” Matters

“And Paul entered the synagogue and for three months spoke boldly, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God. But when some became stubborn and continued in unbelief, speaking evil of the Way before the congregation, he withdrew from them and took the disciples with him, reasoning daily in the hall of Tyrannus. This continued for two years, so that all the residents of Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks,” (Acts 19:8-10, ESV)

“All.” It’s a pretty simple word, but one that carries a pretty big meaning, yet it is easy to rush by. The verses above are Luke’s summary of Paul’s ministry in the city of Ephesus, and the “all” matters. The book of Acts tells us and history agrees that Ephesus was a bit of a world city, exerting a large amount of influence in the Roman province of Asia (modern day Turkey). So, it is not surprising that Paul would dedicate a good amount of time to plant a church there.

What is striking, however, is that Luke tells us that after two years of faithful ministry “all the residents of Asia heard the word of the Lord,” (v. 10). That’s right “all”. Don’t skip that. “All.” Let that sink in a minute. And not just all the residents of Ephesus, but all the residents in the entire province of Asia. Luke’s statement raises three questions in my mind: what does he mean here by “all,” how did Paul accomplish this, and what does that mean for us today?

As to what Luke meant by “all”, we have a few basic choices. 1) By “all” Luke meant every single person, without exception, in Asia heard the gospel. While possible, I am not sure this is the most probable choice. 2) Luke was using hyperbole; a pretty big number of people heard the gospel, and to really make a point Luke just said “all.” This is the least likely possibility in my mind, because it borders very close to being dishonest, and I don’t think the Biblical narratives work that way. 3) Luke meant “all types of residents”, referring to socio-economic and ethnic groups. Luke’s explanatory phrase “both Jew and Greek” at the end of the verse gives this view considerable weight. 4) Enough of the population heard the gospel that they were representative of the whole. We talk this way sometimes “all of our workers embrace this new policy” even when two or three may not, but enough people do we can speak for the whole.

My sense is that by “all” Luke is using a combination of numbers 3 and 4 above. In other words, Luke is saying, “As a result of Paul’s ministry in Ephesus, so many people, from every social category, heard the gospel that there was no place in Asia you could go where people had not heard the message of Jesus.” Not that all who heard the word believed, but the gospel spread far and wide. (Interestingly, Paul claims this same comprehensive sharing of the gospel while in Ephesus in Acts 20:26-27). And that fact is breath-taking.

How then did the gospel spread so broadly in Ephesus and Asia? The answer is found in 19:8-9. There we see that Paul spoke the gospel boldly and daily, and in Acts 20:20 we learn that Paul did this both in public and from “house to house.” In other words, the gospel spread so effectively because Paul and the other believers simply shared the message of Christ in their daily life, wherever they went. As a result, all heard the gospel.

Oh that this would be said of my church, of my neighborhood, of my town (or is it a city?)! And, in fact, it can. How? In the same way it happened for Paul in Ephesus: we face down our fears, trust in the power of the Holy Spirit, and boldly, daily speak of Christ, wherever we find ourselves. May we -may I- be so gripped by the greatness of the gospel that it can be said of our places of influence “all the residents heard the word of God,” because, really, they all matter.




August 6, 2013 · 2:36 pm

2 responses to “It “All” Matters

  1. Good word. I’m wondering if there might be a fifth option. Is it possible that “all” was speaking of geographic location rather than number of people? That is to say that people in “all” the differnet provinces and cites and towns of Asia had exposure or some kind of access to the Word of the Lord. Either by Paul, people who had heard Paul preach, or through word of mouth had heard tell of what it was that some guy named Paul was preaching in the next town over. If we look at Paul’s ministry, the model seems to be that by going to the biggest city and preaching the gospel, that region was considered evangelized. Could that be what’s at play here? Your thoughts?

  2. Matt


    Thanks for reading, friend. That is a great question and an option I considered. The NLT seems to read it that way, and John Stott in his commentary on Acts makes the case that Paul’s message spread very much in the way you are describing (which I agree is right on). However, I don’t think Luke was speaking of geographic location when he said “all” for two reasons. First, in Greek the word “all” is modifying “inhabitants.” Second the term “inhabitants,” from my study at least, seems to always refer to the people of a place and not the place itself. This is because the word “inhabitants” is typically further modified by a place (see for example Acts 1:19 “those dwelling in Jerusalem” or 19:17 “the inhabitants of Ephesus”). So, while I agree about Paul’s method, it seems to me that what Luke has in mind is “all” the actual people of the various locales across Asia. So, while the broader geographic view may be a use of “all” I was not confident enough to include it, though I considered it. Great question!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s